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The Irish Republican Army (IRA) (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann])
For hundreds of years, Ireland had been forcefully dominated by the British. All efforts to gain independence, or even self-rule, was brutally put down. Britain would utilize the ancient Roman tactic of creating legitimacy through the use of pawns, mainly British selected “Irish Lords”.On the 25 November 1913 an organization of Irish Volunteers was established to fight for independence. In April of 1916, in what would become the Easter Rising, the Irish Republic was proclaimed. Thereafter an an elected assembly (Dáil Éireann) was formed which recognized the Irish Volunteers as its legitimate army. In 1919 the Irish War of Independence began and the official Irish Republican Army waged a guerrilla campaign against the British.
In 1921 the British and Irish agreed to a cease fire which would produce the Anglo-Irish Treaty ending the Irish War of Independence. No sooner had the details been released that a split occurred within the IRA. Michael Collins, who was the IRA leader and supported the treaty, formed the new Irish National Army. The anti-treaty members, which were most of the IRA, began both a guerrilla campaign and a Civil War against the British, the Irish National Army and Michael Collins with the goal of an independent Ireland republic. The Civil war lasted from 1922 to 1923. Though Michael Collins was assassinated in an ambush, the IRA lost. The IRA would continue a guerrilla campaign through a mirage of forms, for 80 years with the intention of overthrowing both the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland so to achieve what was proclaimed in 1916: The Irish Republic.
SHE KEEPS TIME
AS 1941 17 JEWEL MANUAL WIND MOVEMENT
GOLD PLATED CASE
PEARL WHITE DIAL
MAP OF IRELAND
GREEN BLACK AND BLUE
STAINLESS STEEL SCREW DOWN CASE BACK
OUTLINED ORIGINAL RAISED FACTORY
NUMBERS & INSERTS
The Kingdom Of Ireland, The Irish Free State, Northern Ireland
>>>>>>1169 -Gaelic Ireland
1169 -Lordship of Ireland after Norman invasion
1541-1801 -Kingdom of Ireland, Irish State
1801 -United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
1803 Irish rebellion led by Robert Emmet joined by other Protestants including James Hope. Executed
1840 Revolutionary writer and poet Thomas Davis and John Mitchel involved with William Smith O’Brien in rebellion of 1848.
1914 -Third Home Rule Act which contained a provision for the “temporary” partition of six northern counties where pro-British Protestant Irish rule separately from the rest of Ireland this was suspended due to the outbreak of the WWI.
1916 -*** The majority “Nationalist” Community seeking greater Independence from Britain, revolt in the “Easter Rising”
GOLD HOUR AND MINUTE HANDS
ORIGINAL FACTORY TRITIUM ILLUMINATION CENTERS
RED SWEEPS SECONDS HAND
ARE IN EXCELLENT CONDITION
1920- War of independence between Ireland and British leads to a treaty where Northern Ireland provisionally becomes an autonomous part of the newly independent Irish Free State with the right to opt out.
1921 Ireland partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland under the terms of Lloyd George’s Government of Ireland Act
1922 -Northern Ireland a 6 county Unionist community with a dominantly Protestant constituent
1922 – Southern Ireland a 26-county nationalist community with a dominant Roman Catholic constituent
1919 to 1922 -Irish Republic unrecognized independent state -David Lloyd George proposed bill dividing Ireland into two Home Rule areas with twenty-six counties being ruled from Dublin by majority Catholic Nationalists and six Northern Counties being ruled from Belfast by Unionist Protestant
1922-1925 Free State Civil War
1925 Leaders in Dublin expected a substantial reduction in the territory of Northern Ireland, with Nationalist Free State securing additional territory from Northern Ireland. Commission recommends a small portions of land should be ceded from the Free State to Northern Ireland.Free State secures a waiver of the Free State’s obligations to the UK’s public debt
1922-1937-Irish Free State a dominion in the beginning comprising all of Ireland, then 26 of the Ireland’s 32 counties
1940,WWII Irish Free State declares neutrality
RED HOUR AND MINUTE HAND
ORIGINAL FACTORY TRITIUM ILLUMINATION CENTER
FACTORY OUTLINED NUMERALS
WITH RAISED TRITIUM ILLUMINATION CENTER
STILL OFFER SOME ILLUMINATION
TO STAY AS A ORIGINAL RESTORATION
WE DID NOT NOR WILL WE
1945-1948 the end of WWII and Northern Ireland Britain loses most of her colonies across the globe. Learning that Winston Churchill had guaranteed to the Nationalists, that they, Britain, would work toward a union of Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland after the war if Ireland joined the Allies, demand an act that would guarantee their status as part of Britain.
1949 -** Northern Ireland receives the news of The Ireland Act of 1949 which provides a legal guarantee to the Parliament and Government of Northern Ireland that the region will continue to be a part of the United Kingdom unless the consent of the majority of its citizens option out.
1950-1965 -With the passing of The Ireland Act, Northern Ireland Unionists begin to create and pass acts,laws and rules that are designed to limit the influence of Nationalist Catholics in their domain. This discrimination against Nationalist Irish Catholics include even the rudimentary. From housing to employment, Catholic Nationalist was deprived of their rights. The muscle of the Unionists include policing and electoral procedures. To insure
disenfranchisement of mostly Catholics, voting is limited to property-owning rate-payers.
1965-1972 the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association is formed. Utilizing the U.S. Civil Rights Movement as an example, they campaign utilizing civil resistance to anti-Catholic discrimination but with limited results.
1968-2000, With no relief, the conflicting views become conflicting acts of intense violence in a underground civil war. Both Ireland’s *Roman Catholic
Nationalists [*IRA] and the Protestant Unionist in support of loyalist paramilitaries who carried out brazen attacks and murder, along with their sponsors
and supporters,the British, who would back the Northern Ireland Unionists against the Irish Nationalists with intrigue, force and terror tactics which included assassinations, torture, illegal wire tapping and surveillance. At least 3,254 individuals would become casualties. Many “terrorist”/”patriot” -loyalist/righist [depending on which side was quoting] acts of revenge would evolve into significant actions and events against not only the Northern
Unionist, but also the British as sponsors of the north. British soldiers, agents, prominent People [Famous WWII Lord Mountbatten assassinated by bombing]
and property become fair game.
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ALL PARTS ARE ORIGINAL
VERY MINOR WEAR
The Irish Republican Army or “IRA* were the main and military wing of the Nationalists during this era. Yet, different groups identified as IRA, OIRA,CIRA and RIRA, with different ideology [including Marxist and socialism] existed from 1919 through present day. The original IRA of 1919 represented the Irish People in their desire for Independence as a Nation called The Irish Republic.
A] The Irish Republican Army & Rebellion (April 1921 – First IRA)
[Old] IRA- After the rebellion against the British, the “Irish Republic” through the First Dáilhad recognized the IRA as the original legitimate army.When a treaty with Britain was made, the IRA split into two factions. Thoseb supporting the Treaty [ pro-Treaty forces ] became the National Army/Government forces/regulars, and those against the treaty [anti-Treaty forces] became the Republicans/irregulars/Executive forces
B] The Irish Republican Army & Civil War(1922–1969)
A civil War between Anti-treaty IRA and Pro Treaty Government Forces was lost by the Anti Treaty branch; who then refused to recognize either the Irish Free State or Northern Ireland, deeming them both to be creations of British imperialism. Over the next 40 Years, the IRA continued to exist one form or another before splitting in 1969 because of a failure to protect Catholic communities in Northern Ireland.
C] Official IRA (OIRA),
this group are those that failed to protect Catholic communities. Though their power Declined in the mid 1970s, they were led by Cathal Goulding and were primarily Marxist in its political orientation. Long inactive in the military sense, its political wing Officially Sinn Féin, would morph into the Workers’ Party of Ireland.
D] Provisional IRA (PIRA),
Though left-wing orientated, it was/is Opposed to the OIRA’s Marxism, it also and increasing political activity. Since the the term ‘IRA’ (without qualifiers) is now used exclusively to denote this particular group.
E] The Continuity IRA (CIRA),
Members who broke from the PIRA in 1986 because the the PIRA ended its policy on abstentionism (thus recognizing the authority of the Republic of Ireland).
F] The Real IRA (RIRA)
In 1997 some members of the PIRA separated to form the RIRA because they were opposed to the ongoing peace process.
G] NEW IRA Oglaigh na hEireann (ONH)
In April 2011 former members of the Provisional IRA announced the resumption of hostilities under the mantle of the mainstream IRA. The Irish Republican Army entirely separate from the Real IRA; even claiming responsibility for the April killing of PSNI constable Ronan Kerr and other attacks that had previously been claimed by the Real IRA and ONH
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The Protestant Unionist Irish
Created by the British as pawns to their ideology; which included the suppression by any means of the desire for self rule for any peoples who one day found themselves a part of the British Empire. As in Ancient Rome, the British ruled over the majority in their colonies by creating a minority class of indigenous social members in their image. By awarding Fiefs with Lordships, they had no problem creating the Protestant Irish Class. Unlike the Spanish who delivered Catholicism to the New World and the French the same to Indochina, the British delivered the Kings Bible only to those it desired to rule in their stead over their fellow Catholic Irish. Wanting to “be like mike”, those descendants of High Born Irish, who sought property, esteem, influence wealth and prestige, had
no problem what so ever in imitating the British by changing their religion. Most Irish Protestant Nationalists, from 1803 through 1949, sought freedom for reasons of their own; that is the master/landlord class.
True 20th Century Irish Nationalists were always Roman Catholics. THE Protestant Nationalist Were only fighting for independence to better themselves. Had indigence been granted in the forms they fought through legislative methods as Protestant Nationalists, they would have continued to hold the majority Catholics of the nation as they did AFTER receiving what they desired as Protestant Nationalists before the mid 19th century!
Before the mid-19th century,there were Protestant Nationalists who supported legislative independence, then they supported the political independence of Ireland prior to the union of the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland forming the United Kingdom, then for a form of home rule within the United Kingdom, then for the partition of Ireland. During the fight for independence and The Irish Republic in 1919-1922, there were some Protestants who supported the war. But, as the outcome demonstrated, it was the power of the Protestant Nationalists that secured the TREATY that most IRA members refused to accept. And, it was the IRA that had the support of more than the majority of the people.
The Church of Ireland is the largest Protestant denomination having roughly 365,000 members. The Presbyterian Church of Ireland has a membership of approximately 300,000. The Protestant citizens on North Ireland account for 35% of the population of the north and approximately 4.7% of the population of the [now] Republic of Ireland. In of 2008, 89% of Northern Ireland Protestants believed the long term policy for Northern Ireland would be to remain in the United Kingdom. Only 4% believed in the reunification with the Republic of Ireland
STAINLESS SCREW DOWN CASE BACK
“NA FIANNA EIREANN”
“NA FIANNA EIREANN”
“WARRIORS/SOLDIERS OF IRELAND”
THE YOUTH WING OF THE IRA IN THE 20TH AND 21 CENTURY
The name Fianna Éireann was named after the mythological Fiannais
spelling & meanings:
Fianna na hÉireann “Soldiery of Ireland”
Na Fianna Éireann “Warriors’ of Ireland”
Na Fianna Éireann “Soldiers of Ireland”
Na Fianna Éireann was organized as a Irish republican youth movement around four years earlier than the Irish Volunteers and was used to train young persons for the Irish Republican Army. By the time it’s members were young adults, they were flly trained in many aspects of warfare, and many of it’s young members transferred over to the Volunteers in 1913. The original committee which set up the new volunteer movement had three Fianna members on it. (Hobson, ibid.) Seamus Pounch was instrumental in the training of the newly formed Cumann na mBan in 1914.
The organizatioon had a professional Fianna Éireann hand book with advertisements from suppliers of uniforms and equipment. Na Fianna played a major part in gun-running and Fianna would be represented at all the garrisons that were involved in the fighting of Easter Week 1916 with Several of the Fianna killed in action. At least fifteen Fianna officers from the Dublin Brigade were rounded up after the Rising and interned at Frongoch, North Wales. After 1916, Na Fianna continued to defy the British ban on marching and parading, and drilled openly with hurleys in open defiance.
Fianna Éireann played a major part in the civil war fighting, especially in Dublin. The Dublin Brigade, Fianna Éireann provided many leaders in this period. Throughout the years of of the IRA, Fianna Éireann played an important part of uprisings, battles, protests and attacks and were from the civil war fighting to their addition as a “terror group” in the United Kingdom 2000 Terrorism Act.
EVEN KEEPERS ARE HAND STITCHED
ON THIS AWESOME LEATHER WATCH STRAP
“NA FIANNA EIREANN”
The bullet-riddled corpses of three teenaged Na Fianna scouts Edwin Hughes , Joseph Rogers and Brendan Holohan were found at The Quarries, Naas Road, Clondalkin, on 28 November 1922.They were all from Drumcondra area and had been putting up republican posters in the Clonliffe Road district when arrested by high-ranking Free State officer, Charlie Dalton and brought for interrogation to Griffith Barracks, where Free State Army Intelligence had their HQ. That was the last time that they were seen alive.
“The Four Martyrs”
The Free State executed four young prisoners who had left Na Fianna to join the Republican Army followed by another group of three, who had similarly graduated from the ranks of the Dublin Brigade, Fianna Éireann.
A prominent ex Fianna officer, Aodh MacNeill officiated at the executions.
22,000 people were interned during the Civil War period 1922-24.
Fianna Éireann was decimated with the loss of most of its officers and the organisation went underground until well after the general release of prisoners in 1924.
Seán Harling leader of the Na Fianna Éireann was compromised by Special Branch and turned him into an agent provocateur for yearse posing as a Fianna officer and Republican.
In the early ’90s with the development of the Peace Process and Sinn Féin Youth, the Provisional Fianna Éireann was eventually disbanded and replaced by Ógra Shinn Féin.
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A DIFFERENT MODEL STRAP COMPLETELY!
10.5”’, Dm= 23.3mm
f = 21600 A/h
power reserve 48h
FAMILY WITH OR WITHOUT DATE
1800/1801: 10.5”’, 18000 A/h
1802/1803: 11.5”’, 18000 A/h
1940/1941: 10.5”’, 21600 A/h
1950/1951: 11.5”’, 21600 A/h
WATCH WINDS SETS & KEEPS TIME
1.2 OUNCE SILVER WITH WHAT TESTS TO BE 9CT GOLD
CENTER WITH “JH”.
US IRISH FAMILY ESTATE BUY
1.2 OUNCE STAMPED *STERLING
LOOKS TO HAVE IRISH MAKERS MARK
1920′ BELT BUCKLE
WHAT LOOKS TO BE A WOMAN
*IN WHAT TESTS UNDER 10K GOLD
THE CENTER IS BELIEVED TO BE 9K GOLD
DUE TO PROBLEM OF ABILITY TO FILE
ENOUGH W/O DAMAGING FOR SURE TEST
WILL SIMPLY SAY BELIEVED TO BE 9C GOLD CENTER
SIGNED ON BACK
THERE ARE OTHER GRAVING ON BACK BUT WHAT
IS INTERESTING IS THE BACK OF THE CENTER INITIAL PIECE
AS YOU CAN SEE MAGNIFIED
THERE ARE NUMBERS AND DATES THROUGHOUT
THE INITIAL BAR. DATES PRIOR TO THE BUCKLES MANUFACTURE TO 1930.
FROM THE LOOK OF THE COLOR AFTER CLEANING IT REMAINS THE SAME
ROSE GOLD LOOK OF THE FRONT INITIAL AND GRAVING
WORKS -SO WE ARE SURE THAT IT IS NOT STERLING
MAGNIFIED EVEN MORE
THE CLEAR DATES RUN TO THE INSIDE UNDER
IRA CAN BE CLEARLY SEEN UNDER THE SILVER
IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY
HUNGER STRIKE VICTIM
Francis Hughes was the second imprisoned I.R.A. members who died due to the I.R.A. hunger at Maze Prison in the SECOND FAZE OF STRIKES IN THE EARLY 1980’s.
Hughes was born in Bellaghy, County Londonderry on 28 February 1956 into a republican family: the youngest of four brothers in a family of ten siblings Hughes’ father Joseph had been a member of the Irish Republican Army in the 1920s and one of his uncles had smuggled arms for the republican movement. This resulted in the Hughes family being targeted when internment was introduced in 1971, and Hughes’ brother Oliver was interned for eight months without trial. Hughes left school aged 16 and started work as an apprentice painter and decorator. Hughes was returning from an evening out in Ardboe, County Tyrone when he was stopped at an Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) checkpoint.When the soldiers realised he came from a republican family, he was badly beaten. Hughes’ father encouraged him to see a doctor and report the incident to the police but Hughes refused, saying he “would get his own back on the people who did it, and their friends”
Hughes initially joined the Official Irish Republican Army, but left after the organisation declared a ceasefire in May 1972 Hughes then joined an Independent Republican Unit along with Dominic McGlinchey and Ian Milne, before the three decided to join the Provisional IRA in 1973. Hughes, Milne and McGlinchey took part in scores of IRA operations, including daylight attacks on Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) stations, bombings, and attacks on off-duty members of the RUC and UDR.
An IRA member described the activities of Hughes:
“ He led a life perpetually on the move, often moving on foot up to 20 miles during one night then sleeping during the day, either in fields and ditches or safe houses; a soldierly sight in his black beret and combat uniform and openly carrying a rifle, a handgun and several grenades as well as food rations”
Hughes was eventually captured on 17 March 1978 near Maghera in County Londonderry after an exchange of gunfire with the British Army. A member of the Parachute Regiment, L/CPL David Jones, was killed in the gun battle, and another para seriously wounded. Hughes was wounded in the leg. He managed to limp away but was discovered the next morning in a search and surrendered to British troops.
In February 1980 he was sentenced to a total of 83 years in prison.
Hughes was involved in the mass hunger strike in 1980, and was the second prisoner to join the 1981 Irish Hunger Strike in the H-Blocks at HM Prison Maze. His hunger strike started on 15 March 1981, two weeks after Bobby Sands became the first hunger striker. He was the second striker to die, at 5:43pm BST on 12 May, after 59 days without food. His death led to an upsurge in rioting in nationalist areas of Northern Ireland.
His cousin, Thomas McElwee, was the ninth hunger striker to die. One of his brothers, Oliver Hughes now sits on Magherafelt Council. Hughes is commemorated on the Irish Martyrs Memorial at Waverley Cemetery in Sydney, Australia.
IRISH MARCHING DURING FUNERAL
DIED FROM IRA PRISON HUNGER STRIKE
“I die proudly for my country and in the hope that my death will be sufficient to obtain the demands of my comrades. Let there be no bitterness on my behalf, but a determination to achieve the new Ireland for which I gladly die. My loyalty and confidence is to the IRA and let those of you who are left carry on the work and finish the fight. “
Michael Gaughan was an I.R.A. member who died due to the I.R.A. hunger strikes at Maze Prison in the mid 1970’s
Gaughan, the eldest of six children, was born in Ballina, County Mayo, in 1949. Gaughan grew up at Healy Terrace and was educated at St Muredach’s College, Ballina, and after finishing his schooling, he emigrated from Ireland to England in search of work.
Whilst in London, Gaughan became a member of the Official IRA (OIRA) through Official Sinn Féin’s English wing Clann na hÉireann and became an IRA volunteer in a London-based active service unit. In December 1971, he was sentenced at the Old Bailey to seven years imprisonment for his part in an IRA fundraising mission to rob a bank in Hornsey, north London, which yielded just £530, and for the possession of two revolvers.
Gaughan was initially imprisoned at Wormwood Scrubs, where he spent two years before being transferred to the top security Albany Prison on the Isle of Wight. Whilst at Albany Prison, Gaughan requested political status; this was refused, and he was then put in solitary confinement. He was later transferred to Parkhurst Prison, where four of the Belfast Ten were on hunger strike for political status.
On 31 March 1974, Gaughan, along with Sinn Féin MLA Gerry Kelly, Paul Holme, Hugh Feeney and fellow Mayoman Frank Stagg, went on hunger strike to support the fight of Dolours and Marion Price to obtain political status and to be transferred to a jail in Ireland. The prisoners demands were as follows.
The right to political status,
The right to wear their own clothes,
A guarantee that he would not be returned to solitary confinement,
The right to educational facilities and not engage in penal labour,
The setting of a reasonable date for a transfer to an Irish prison,
British policy at this time was to force feed hunger strikers. According to the National Hunger Strike Commemoration Committee, “six to eight guards would restrain the prisoner and drag him or her by the hair to the top of the bed, where they would stretch the prisoner’s neck over the metal rail, force a block between his or her teeth and then pass a feeding tube, which extended down the throat, through a hole in the block.”
After visiting Michael in jail, his brother John described his condition: “His throat had been badly cut by force feeding and his teeth loosened. His eyes were sunken, his cheeks hollow and his mouth was gaping open”. During his hunger strike, his weight dropped from 160 lb to 84 lb Gaughan was force-fed from 22 April and this occurred 17 times during course of his hunger strike. The last time he was force-fed was the night before his death on Sunday 2 June. After a hunger strike that lasted 64 days, he died on Monday 3 June 1974, aged 24 years old.
ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT
The Royal Irish Regiment, until 1881 the 18th Regiment of Foot, was an infantry regiment of the line in the British Army, first raised in 1684. Also known as the 18th (Royal Irish) Regiment of Foot and the 18th (The Royal Irish) Regiment of Foot, it was one of eight Irish regiments raised largely in Ireland, its home depot in Clonmel. It saw service for two and a half centuries before being disbanded with the Partition of Ireland following establishment of the independent Irish Free State in 1922 when the five regiments that had their traditional recruiting grounds in the counties of the new state were disbanded.
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Branch British Army,
Role Line Infantry
Size 2 Regular Battalions 3 Militia and Special Reserve Battalions 6
Unit Name The Namurs, Paddy’s Blackguards Motto Virtutis
Namurcensis Praemium (Reward for Valour at Namur)
QUEEN’S & REGIMENTAL COLORS
Seven Years War and American Revolution
Ordered to America on 1 January 1767. Philadelphia on 11 July 1767[ Colonel John Wilkins]. Detachment sent to Ft. Pitt later – majority [Wilkins] to Illinois in early 1768. A detachment [Captain Hugh Lord] at Ft. Gage (Kaskaskia). May 1776 when it was ordered to Detroit. Regiment present in Boston where grenadier company participates in formal combat AT the Battle of Lexington, Concord and Bunker Hill.
French Revolutionary Wars
The Royal Irish returned to Gibraltar in 1783, where they remained until the Siege of Toulon in 1793.
New Zealand Wars
The regiment’s second battalion, formed mainly from volunteers from the Irish Militia, began to arrive in New Zealand from 4 July 1863. It served in the Waikato and Taranaki Campaigns.
Participated in the Boer War.
First World War,
7 further battalions were raised 5th (Service) Battalion [1914-1919]; three including a mounted unit, the 7th (South Irish Horse) Battalion, for the front and three Garrison Battalions.
Easter Rising 1916
he Royal Irish Regiment, made up in the vast majority of local Dubliners and were the first British army troops to attack the Irish rebels during the 1916 Easter Rising who were fighting to end British rule in Ireland and to establish the Irish Republic in Dublin.
Namur 1695, Blenheim, Ramillies, Oudenarde, Malplaquet, Egypt, China, Pegu, Sevastopol, New Zealand, Afghanistan (1879–80), Tel-el-Kebir, Egypt 1882, Nile (1884–85), South Africa (1900–02)
The Great War: Mons, Le Cateau, Retreat from Mons, Marne 1914, Aisne 1914, La Bassée 1914, Ypres 1915 ’17 ’18, Gravenstafel, St Julien, Frezenberg, Bellewaarde, Somme 1916 ’18, Albert 1916 ’18, Bazentin, Delville Wood, Guillemont, Ginchy, Messines 1917, Pilckem, Langemarck 1917, St. Quentin, Rosières, Arras 1918, Drocourt-Quéant, Hindenburg Line, Canal du Nord, St Quentin Canal, Beaurevoir, Cambrai 1918, Courtrai, France and Flanders 1914-18, Struma, Macedonia 1915-17, Suvla, Landing at Suvla, Gallipoli 1915, Gaza, Jerusalem, Tell ‘Asur, Megiddo, Nablus, Palestine 1917-18
Great War Memorials
Irish National War Memorial Gardens, Dublin.
Island of Ireland Peace Park Messines, Belgium.
Ulster Tower Memorial Thiepval, France.
Menin Gate Memorial Ypres, Belgium.
ROYAL IRISH RIFLES BADGE
The Royal Irish Rifles/Royal Ulster Rifles was a British Army [United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland] infantry regiment. It saw service in the Second Boer War, Great War, the Second World War and the Korean War, before being amalgamated into the Royal Irish Rangers in 1968. The regiment’s history dates backs to the reign of King George III. In 1793 the British army expanded to meet the commitments of the war with the French First Republic. As part of that expansion it raised two new Regiments of Foot, the 83rd and the 86th. At the same time the counties Antrim, Down and Louth Regiments of Militia were raised. In 1881, under the Childers Reforms, the 83rd and 86th were amalgamated into a single regiment, named the Royal Irish Rifles. It was one of eight regiments raised and garrisoned in Ireland and was the county regiment of Antrim, Down and Louth, with its garrison depot located at Belfast. Militarily, the whole of Ireland was administered as a separate command within the United Kingdom with Command Headquarters at Parkgate Dublin, directly under the War Office in London
The Pursuit of Robert Emmet
NOTED & SIGNED
WOW, WHAT A BOOK– SORRY, I HAVE TO FINISH THIS AWESOME TRUE STORY BEFORE THIS BOX GOES!!.
THIS IS A STORY OF THE FIRST MODERN DAY IRISH QUEST FOR INDEPENDENCE. FROM FRANCE AND NAPOLEON TO AMERICA’S WAR OF INDEPENDENCE, THE IRISH WILL DO MORE THAN PRAY AND HOPE. THE ACTIONS WITHIN THIS TRUE AND HISTORIC FACT FILLED VOLUME OF IRISH DETERMINATION AND PRIDE, WILL SET THE STAGE AND TONE FOR THE NEARLY TWO ADDITIONAL CENTURIES OF IRISH AND THEIR INCREDIBLE STRUGGLE TO FREEDOM!
MAN, FIND A COPY AND READ IT! , THIS SIGNED FIRST EDITION HISTORY IS NOT SIMPLY SPELLBINDING, IT WILL HAVE YOU SNEAKING PAST THE CHAPTER YOU ARE READING!
POWERFUL AND STUNNING, IT IS A TREASURE NOT JUST FOR THE PROUD AND DETERMINED FREEDOM LOVING IRISH MAN AND WOMAN, BUT FOR ANY CITIZEN OF THIS WORLD WHO YEARNS FOR DEMOCRACY AND FREEDOM!!
A well-known figure of Irish history, in 1803, Robert Emmet led a rebellion against British rule and his loss meant trial and execution.
This 1948 First Edition of The Pursuit of Robert Emmet, containing numerous black and white photographs, is inscribed, noted, signed and dated by the author Helen Landreth in 1948, is in very good to fine condition with some discoloration to the spine and the pages at the top of the book.
Helen Landreth was born in Nashville, Tennessee, in 1892. Her father, Olin Landreth, was then the Dean of the Engineering Faculty at Vanderbilt University in Nashville. In 1894, the family moved to Schenectady, New York, where her father headed the Engineering Department at Union College.
In 1914, Landreth entered Teachers College at Columbia, but left in 1918 before completing her degree requirements. She joined the staff of Collier’s, a magazine based in New York, in 1922. In 1925, Landreth traveled to Lodz, Poland with her father, and saw, from the ship, Ireland for the first time. This first glimpse acted as a magnet on her mind and imagination. The study of Ireland would become her life’s work.
Landreth worked for a brief time, as a fiction editor for McClure’s magazine in New York before returning to Ireland. She devoted herself to research and writing. Her first book, Dear Dark Head, a history of Ireland until 1919, was published in 1936. She returned to Ireland in 1938 to work on her second book, The Pursuit of Robert Emmet, which was published in 1949.
While in the US to oversee publication of this book, Landreth met Rev. Terence Connolly, S.J., who was then the Librarian of Boston College and a great admirer of her work. Connolly asked Landreth to assemble an Irish Collection for Boston College and Landreth accepted.
Landreth worked in the Library’s Irish Collection for the next 30 years, until her retirement in 1979. During this time, she wrote a small volume on Mary Childers, based on their correspondence, as well as writing several articles which appeared in magazines in both the United States and Ireland.
Landreth never married nor had any children. In 1964 she was inducted into the Eire Society. In 1976 she received the Boston College Bicentennial Medal. She was also a dedicated volunteer at the Children’s Hospital in Boston, beginning in 1955, working mainly with polio victims. She died in 1981.
The Pursuit of Robert Emmet is based upon the research that Helen Landreth accomplished. Her core material came from both private and public documents and archives. Helen Landreth strove to uncover the true series of events that led to Emmet’s capture through the documents she viewed in the manuscript room of Trinity College, The Royal Irish Academy, the National Library of Ireland, the Irish Public Record Office, and the Irish State Paper Office. With the passion and energy of her tireless efforts, she recounts and explains the ‘great mystery’ of Robert Emmet.
“A biography, not only of the Irish patriot, but of the principles and cause for which he gave his life”
“The growth of Irish national spirit, of the force and fear that suppressed a people and a land.”
“The personal story of Robert Emmet, idealist, romantic, ardent, never too practical with the history of his period; national and international and [ THE ] political issues.”
“[FROM HIS] background, [to]the early influences toward rebellion against the English[to the] forces that brought him into the plot to attack Dublin Castle and other locations of government in 1803, failure and his days as fugitive, then as prisoner on trial for treason. “
“[the many]conflicting reports scrutinized the possibilities that Emmet had been tricked into conspiracy to fit English purposes – [the fact] Emmet never betrayed his companions “
A PSYCHIC ADVENTURE……
“THE SEARCH FOR AN IRISH MARTYR” …..
Psychic clues lead an American woman on a quest to uncover the explosive truth behind Ireland’s greatest historical mystery.
By Ann Druffel
“ON SEPTEMBER 19, 1803, in Dublin, Ireland, 25-year-old Robert Emmet was on trial for his life. For 13 hours he listened as a parade of witnesses uttered damning evidence. No one dared to testify in his behalf.
The verdict, when it finally came, was all but inevitable. The English judge convicted Emmet, an idealistic young patriot-intellectual who had fought for his country’s freedom, of high treason against the Crown of England.
All during the trial Emmet had heard his motives mocked and his character maligned. He was left with the bitter realization that the English had succeeded in discrediting everything he had ever struggled for.
Finally Emmet addressed the judge in a passionate speech which history still remembers.
He said, “My Lord,, the grave opens to receive me…. .I have but one request to make. Let no man write my epitaph. . . . Let my memory be left in oblivion and my tomb remain uninscribed until other times and other men can do justice to my character. When my country takes her place among the nations of the earth, then, and not till then, let my epitaph be written.
The following day Emmet was executed in front of St. Catherine’s Church in Dublin. With red-coated soldiers standing guard a vast crowd of onlookers watched Emmet die slowly on a crude gallows. Afterwards his head was hacked from the body with a large kitchen knife. His blood flowed onto the street.
The crowd slowly dispersed. A few brave citizens furtively soaked handkerchiefs in the martyr’s blood. Later dogs came and licked the cobblestones clean of what remained.
Emmet’s last words were prophetic. The location of his grave remained unknown. His epitaph has never been written. Ireland is still divided. The Republic of Ireland gained independence in 1922, but England still rules the six northern counties.
Although the people of Ireland never uncovered Emmet’s body, they did not forget his bright spirit. Over the next 175 years rumors and legends concer