CIVIL WAR VIEW OUR FIRST EVER CIVIL WAR BOX! VIEW OUR FIRST EVER CIVIL WAR BOX! MONTGOMERY 11TH AIRBORNE GERMAN JUNGHANS WWII TARAWA 101ST DIEN BIEN PHU SEALS RIVER RATS MEDIC CORPMAN WWII AVIATION WWII NAVY AIR WWII TIMERS WWII BRITISH WWII ARMY AIR NY FIREMAN FRANK BUCK SPANISH AMER WWI[…]
ALL GSW GSWW MWB ECI CPO LSYF VIDEO IN ONE PLAYER `NEW ALL GSW VIDEO IN ONE PLAYER AUGUST 8 2014` VIETNAM WAR SPECIAL GSW US ISSUED VIETNAM WAR MILITARY WATCHES[ROCK SUPPLIED] Vietnam War Video River Rats N Seals[COURTESY OF THE PRODUCERS] MILITARY BATTLES and OPERATIONS VIETNAM WARCOURTESY OF THEVietnam Archive Resources […]
THIS IS YOUR COMMUNITY! FOR WATCH COLLECTORS & OUR PATRONS CLICK HERE GSW STRIVES TO PROVIDE INFORMATION TO EDUCATE AND ASSIST YOU IN MAKING A DETERMINATION ON WHY YOU SHOULD INVEST WITH GSW/MWB FOR THIS OR ANOTHER GSW VINTAGE WATCH OFFERING. THUS, WE HAVE PLACED 6 WEBSITES DEDICATED TO HELPING YOU. OUR DEDICATION MEANS[…]
MILITARYWATCHBOXES ™©® tm sm HISTORY IN A BOX ™©® tm sm ROCK RETIRED FROM WATCH RESTORATION BUT NOT FROM MWB BUILDING OR RESTORING WATCHES FOR MWB! SO HAVE AN IDEA? WANT A BOX BUILT? FOR ANY HISTORIC ITEM TRADE SPORT OR FIELD TRADE HOBBY PREFER ONE WITH A TIMER CLOCK POCKET WRIST OR GADGET CONTACT[…]
SPECIAL FORCES Special forces, or Special Operations forces are terms used to describe elite military tactical teams trained to perform high-risk dangerous missions that conventional units cannot perform. Special Forces soldiers need to be physically and mentally robust and have the confidence, courage, and skill to operate individually or in small teams, often[…]
AFGHANISTAN The War in Afghanistan began on 7 October 2001, as the armed forces of the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Australia, and the Afghan United Front (Northern Alliance) launched Operation Enduring Freedom. The primary driver of the invasion was the September 11 attacks on the U.S., with the stated goal of dismantling[…]
DESERT STORM IRAQ WAR The Gulf War (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Storm (17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991) was a war waged by a UN-authorized coalition force from 34 nations led by the United States, against Iraq in response to Iraq’s invasion and annexation of Kuwait. The[…]
FRENCH INDOCHINA WAR FRENCH-INDOCHINA AMERICAN-VIETNAM-WAR ****************************************** MONTGOMERY 11TH AIRBORNE GERMAN JUNGHANS WWII TARAWA DIEN BIEN PHU SEALS RIVER RATS MEDIC CORPMAN WWII AVIATION WWII TIMERS WWII BRITISH WWII ARMY AIR NY FIREMAN SPANISH AMER WWI IST INF CIVIL WAR RESTORATION CLICK ABOVE USE NAME/EMAIL TELL US ABOUT YOUR WATCH ADD UP TO 7[…]
The Irish Republican Army (IRA) (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann]) For hundreds of years, Ireland had been forcefully dominated by the British. All efforts to gain independence, or even self-rule, was brutally put down. Britain would utilize the ancient Roman tactic of creating legitimacy through the use of pawns, mainly British selected “Irish[…]
AMERICAN KOREAN WAR The Korean War (25 June 1950 – armistice signed 27 July 1953 ) was a conventional war between South Korea, supported by the United Nations, and North Korea, supported by the People’s Republic of China (PRC), with military material aid from the Soviet Union. The war was a result of the[…]
SPANISH AMERICAN WAR CUBA PHILIPPINES PUERTO RICO **HAWAII ** Though not part of War, Hawaii was annexed during this period CLICK HERE TO VIEW OUR FIRST WAR OF 1898 BOX WITH ROSKOPF CUERVO Y SOBRINO Republic of Puerto Rico Flag 1873-1875 The Territory of Hawaii 1898-1960 Hawaiian Naval Ensign 1887-1898 30th Chasseurs Battalion[…]
WORLD WAR ONE WWI – WW1 – WORLD WAR ONE The American “Red Hand” Division Flag When General Black Jack Pershing arrived in France in 1918,, he separated the “Black” Regiments, including the New York City, National Guard Unit called the Black Rattlers. He provided them to French General Mariano Goybet who commanded[…]
GOLDSMITHWORKS 35000 IMAGES/25000 PAGES ONLINE 24/7 Vintage Time Re-Made In America ™ Turning Your Old Jewelry Into Something New ™ State Licensed Precious Metal Gemstone & 2nd Hand Dealer VINTAGE MILITARY/COLLECTIBLE WATCH RESTORATION FINE JEWELRY – GEMSTONES & DIAMONDS CLICK VIDEO BUTTON BELOW FOR GSW/GSWW STUDIO VIDEO AND WEB-CAM-VIDEO ******************************************************************* GSW PO[…]
Copyrights goes to those whom prepared these video featuresMost of the video we discover is military created.Those produced with veteran assistance we hold in the highest regard military-battles-operations-vietnam-war For great Vietnam War research with info concerning nearly every operation for an 8 year period, along with a host of Vietnam Vet interviews you can[…]
ROCK ALWAYS HAS SOMEONE COMMENTING ON HIS HANDS BUT, EVEN UNDER THE NAILS, THE 5 TYPES OF CUTTING AND BUFFING COMPOUNDS TURN THE SKIN AND NAILS BLACK. IT SIMPLY TAKES UP TO 4 WEEKS TO REMOVE SO IT IS NOT SOMETHING THAT WORRIES HIM OR THE FINE WATCH WORKS HE DOES. IN FACT, ROCK RESTORES[…]
Turning Your Old Jewelry Into Something New ™VINTAGE & MILITARY WATCHESVintage Time Re-Made In America ™ WE SUPPORT TIMEFRAUD.COM ABOUT USGoldSmithWorks™ 2005 ROCK SCARFONE ALL RIGHTS RESERVED,provides this page to educate users about our company, our services and our trade & service marks and actions that infringe those trade/service marks and other intellectual property rights.COMPANY:VEroTRADE GROUPS:SERVICE[…]
WORLD WAR ONE
WWI – WW1 – WORLD WAR ONE
|The American “Red Hand” Division Flag
When General Black Jack Pershing arrived in France in 1918,, he separated the “Black” Regiments, including the New York City, National Guard Unit called the Black Rattlers. He provided them to French General Mariano Goybet who commanded the French 157th division which consisted of the French 333rd infantry regiment. The 371st Infantry, a part of the 92nd Division was attached to the 157th to bring the unit to full strength and, it was said, to fulfill a promise made to France from the long ago debt of the Revolutionary War. , Both the American 371st and 372 regiments would be part of the French Generals division, yet remain as independant fighting units.This created the now famous Fighting “Red Hand” Division and would propel the Black Rattlers to the WORLD FAMOUS name of the HARLEM HELL FIGHTERS. A name given these blasck american soldiers be the Germans due to the ferosity that the Black American soldiers fought with
The first battle flag used by the 157th was the field flag of General Goybet. who was authorized a personal field flag which would be Red, White, and Red. , General Goybet added the red hand to the white field to remember the soldiers that had died and to remind the remaining soldiers that there was a blood debt owed, a vengeance if you will, to the Germans for the death of those soldier. The General’s flag was changed again. Two small American flags (one on each side) to the red stripes closest to the staff, symbolizing the addition of the American unit to the command.Historically, the 372nd was one of the oldest African-American units in the country dating back to the Civil War with a lineage including the Monumental City Guards and the First Separate Company. Though out the World War I these two African-American regiments fought bravely. They were the longest front line serving American soldiers and were the first American soldiers who fought all the way to the Rhine. These men were awarded the Croix de Guerre, and several of their men received both the French Legion of Honor and the American Distinguished Service Cross. Freddie Stowers of the 371st was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor, our nation’s highest military award for bravery.
World War I (WWI), which was called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. It involved all the world’s great powers, which were assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies (centred around the Triple Entente) and the Central Powers (originally centred around the Triple Alliance). More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilized in one of the largest wars in history More than 9 million combatants were killed, largely because of great technological advances in firepower without corresponding advances in mobility. It was the sixth deadliest conflict in world history.
The assassination on 28 June 1914 of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, was the proximate trigger of the war. Long-term causes, such as imperialistic foreign policies of the great powers of Europe, such as the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire, the British Empire, France, and Italy, played a major role. Ferdinand’s assassination by a Yugoslav nationalist resulted in a Habsburg ultimatum against the Kingdom of Serbia. Several alliances formed over the past decades were invoked, so within weeks the major powers were at war; via their colonies, the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 28 July, the conflict opened with the Austro-Hungarian invasion of Serbia, followed by the German invasion of Belgium, Luxembourg and France; and a Russian attack against Germany. After the German march on Paris was brought to a halt, the Western Front settled into a static battle of attrition with a trench line that changed little until 1917. In the East, the Russian army successfully fought against the Austro-Hungarian forces but was forced back by the German army. Additional fronts opened after the Ottoman Empire joined the war in 1914, Italy and Bulgaria in 1915 and Romania in 1916. The Russian Empire collapsed in 1917, and Russia left the war after the October Revolution later that year. After a 1918 German offensive along the western front, United States forces entered the trenches and the Allies drove back the German armies in a series of successful offensives. Germany agreed to a cease-fire on 11 November 1918, later known as Armistice Day.
By the war’s end, four major imperial powers—the German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires—had been militarily and politically defeated and had ceased to exist. The former two states lost a great amount of territory, while the latter two were dismantled entirely. The map of central Europe was redrawn into several smaller states. The League of Nations was formed in the hope of preventing another such conflict. The European nationalism spawned by the war and the breakup of empires, the repercussions of Germany’s defeat and problems with the Treaty of Versailles are generally agreed to be factors in the beginning of World War II.
Before World War II, the war was also known as The Great War, The World War, or The War in Europe. In France and Belgium, it was sometimes referred to as La Guerre du Droit (the War for Justice) or La Guerre Pour la Civilisation / de Oorlog tot de Beschaving (the War to Preserve Civilisation), especially on medals and commemorative monuments. The term used by official histories of the war in Britain and Canada is First World War, while American histories generally use the term World War I.
The earliest known use of the term First World War appeared in September 1914 when German biologist and philosopher Ernst Haeckel said, “there is no doubt that the course and character of the feared ‘European War'” … will become the first world war in the full sense of the word.”
The terms World War I and First World War both became standard (in the United States and Britain respectively) beginning in about 1940 to 1942; before that, it was most commonly called The Great War.
In the 19th Century, the major European powers had gone to great lengths to maintain a balance of power throughout Europe, resulting by 1900 in a complex network of political and military alliances throughout the continent. These had started in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia, Russia, and Austria. Then, in October 1873, German Chancellor Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors (German: Dreikaiserbund) between the monarchs of Austria–Hungary, Russia and Germany. This agreement failed because Austria–Hungary and Russia could not agree over Balkan policy, leaving Germany and Austria–Hungary in an alliance formed in 1879, called the Dual Alliance. This was seen as a method of countering Russian influence in the Balkans as the Ottoman Empire continued to weaken. In 1882, this alliance was expanded to include Italy in what became the Triple Alliance.
After 1870, European conflict was averted largely through a carefully planned network of treaties between the German Empire and the remainder of Europe orchestrated by Chancellor Bismarck. He especially worked to hold Russia at Germany’s side to avoid a two-front war with France and Russia. When Wilhelm II ascended to the throne as German Emperor (Kaiser), Bismarck’s alliances were gradually de-emphasised. For example, the Kaiser refused to renew the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia in 1890. Two years later, the Franco-Russian Alliance was signed to counteract the force of the Triple Alliance. In 1904, the United Kingdom sealed an alliance with France, the Entente cordiale and in 1907, the United Kingdom and Russia signed the Anglo-Russian Convention. This system of interlocking bilateral agreements formed the Triple Entente.
Ship at sea with smoke emitting from two funnels
HMS Dreadnought. A naval arms race existed between the United Kingdom and Germany.
German industrial and economic power had grown greatly after unification and the foundation of the Empire in 1870. From the mid-1890s on, the government of Wilhelm II used this base to devote significant economic resources to building up the Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial German Navy), established by Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, in rivalry with the British Royal Navy for world naval supremacy. As a result, both nations strove to out-build each other in terms of capital ships. With the launch of HMS Dreadnought in 1906, the British Empire expanded on its significant advantage over its German rivals. The arms race between Britain and Germany eventually extended to the rest of Europe, with all the major powers devoting their industrial base to producing the equipment and weapons necessary for a pan-European conflict. Between 1908 and 1913, the military spending of the European powers increased by 50 percent.
Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian-Serb student, was arrested immediately after he assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
Austria-Hungary precipitated the Bosnian crisis of 1908–1909 by officially annexing the former Ottoman territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which it had occupied since 1878. This angered the Kingdom of Serbia and its patron, the Pan-Slavic and Orthodox Russian Empire. Russian political manoeuvring in the region destabilised peace accords that were already fracturing in what was known as “the Powder keg of Europe”.
Ethno-linguistic map of Austria–Hungary, 1910
In 1912 and 1913, the First Balkan War was fought between the Balkan League and the fracturing Ottoman Empire. The resulting Treaty of London further shrank the Ottoman Empire, creating an independent Albanian State while enlarging the territorial holdings of Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece. When Bulgaria attacked both Serbia and Greece on 16 June 1913, it lost most of Macedonia to Serbia and Greece and Southern Dobruja to Romania in the 33-day Second Balkan War, further destabilising the region.
On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian-Serb student and member of Young Bosnia, assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo, Bosnia. This began a period of diplomatic manoeuvring among Austria-Hungary, Germany, Russia, France, and Britain called the July Crisis. Wanting to finally end Serbian interference in Bosnia, Austria-Hungary delivered the July Ultimatum to Serbia, a series of ten demands intentionally made unacceptable, intending to provoke a war with Serbia. When Serbia agreed to only eight of the ten demands, Austria-Hungary declared war on 28 July 1914. Strachan argues, “Whether an equivocal and early response by Serbia would have made any difference to Austria-Hungary’s behaviour must be doubtful. Franz Ferdinand was not the sort of personality who commanded popularity, and his demise did not cast the empire into deepest mourning”.
The Russian Empire, unwilling to allow Austria–Hungary to eliminate its influence in the Balkans, and in support of its longtime Serb protégés, ordered a partial mobilisation one day later. When the German Empire began to mobilise on 30 July 1914, France, angry about the German conquest of Alsace-Lorraine during the Franco-Prussian War, ordered French mobilisation on 1 August. Germany declared war on Russia on the same day. The United Kingdom declared war on Germany, on 4 August 1914, following an “unsatisfactory reply” to the British ultimatum that Belgium must be kept neutral.
The United States originally pursued a policy of non-intervention, avoiding conflict while trying to broker a peace. When a German U-boat sank the British liner Lusitania in 1915, with 128 Americans aboard, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson vowed, “America is too proud to fight” and demanded an end to attacks on passenger ships. Germany complied. Wilson unsuccessfully tried to mediate a settlement. He repeatedly warned the U.S. would not tolerate unrestricted submarine warfare, in violation of international law and U.S. ideas of human rights. Wilson was under pressure from former president Theodore Roosevelt, who denounced German acts as “piracy”. Wilson’s desire to have a seat at negotiations at war’s end to advance the League of Nations also played a role. Wilson’s Secretary of State, William Jennings Bryan, whose opinions had been ignored, resigned as he could no longer support the president’s policy. Public opinion was angered at suspected German sabotage of Black Tom in Jersey City, New Jersey, and the Kingsland Explosion.
In January 1917, Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare. The German Foreign minister, in the Zimmermann Telegram, told Mexico that U.S. entry was likely once unrestricted submarine warfare began, and invited Mexico to join the war as Germany’s ally against the United States. In return, the Germans would send Mexico money and help it recover the territories of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona that Mexico lost during the Mexican-American War 70 years earlier. Wilson released the Zimmerman note to the public and Americans saw it as a casus belli—a cause for war.
President Wilson before Congress, announcing the break in official relations with Germany on 3 February 1917.
U.S. declaration of war on Germany
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Woodrow Wilson declares war on Germany
After the sinking of seven U.S. merchant ships by submarines and the publication of the Zimmerman telegram, Wilson called for war on Germany, which the U.S. Congress declared on 6 April 1917.