AMERICAN VIETNAM WAR
The Vietnam Warwas a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of South Vietnam, supported by the United States and other anti-communist nations.
The Viet Cong, a lightly armed South Vietnamese communist-controlled common front, largely fought a guerrilla war against anti-communist forces in the region.
The Vietnam People’s Army (North Vietnamese Army) engaged in a more conventional war, at times committing large units into battle. U.S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces, artillery and airstrikes.
The U.S. government viewed involvement in the war as a way to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam as part of their wider strategy of containment. The North Vietnamese government viewed the war as a colonial war, fought initially against France, backed by the U.S., and later against South Vietnam, which it regarded as a U.S. puppet state. U.S. military advisors arrived beginning in 1950.
U.S. involvement escalated in the early 1960s, with U.S. troop levels tripling in 1961 and tripling again in 1962. U.S. combat units were deployed beginning in 1965. Operations spanned borders, with Laos and Cambodia heavily bombed. Involvement peaked in 1968 at the time of the Tet Offensive. After this, U.S. ground forces were withdrawn as part of a policy called Vietnamization.
Despite the Paris Peace Accords, signed by all parties in January 1973, fighting continued. U.S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.S. Congress.
The capture of Saigon by the North Vietnamese army in April 1975 marked the end of the Vietnam War. North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities (See: Vietnam War casualties). Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from less than one millionto more than three million.
Some 200,000–300,000 Cambodians,20,000–200,000 Laotians,and 58,220 U.S. service members also died in the conflict.[A 2] Contents [hide] * 1 Names for the War Background to 1949 *Exit of the French, 1950–1954 * 4 Transition period Diem era, 1955–1963 o 5.1 Rule o 5.2 Insurgency in the South, 1956–1960
During John F. Kennedy’s administration, 1961–1963 THERE WERE Coup and assassinations
Lyndon B. Johnson escalates the war, 1963–1969
Escalation and ground war Tet Offensive 1968
Nixon Doctrine / Vietnamization
Operation Menu: the secret bombing of Cambodia and Laos 1972 election and Paris Peace Accords
9 Opposition to the Vietnam War: 1962–1975